Second Amendment: The Militia Vs. The People
There's also been multiple rehashes of the old argument that the second amendment should only apply to members of "a well-regulated militia"; a.k.a. the military or National Guard.
To refresh your memory, here's the actual text of the second amendment:
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
For those who insist this means that only duly appointed agents of the government (or militias run thereby) have the right to bear arms, I have two questions: one, if the intention of the second amendment was to preserve the government's right to maintain an armed militia, why does it specify that people, rather than militiamen, have the right to bear arms? Any other mention of "people" in the Bill of Rights plainly refers to people, not government organizations.
For that matter, why was this mentioned in the Bill of Rights -- written to safeguard individuals' rights against the government -- rather than in the main body of the constitution? Article 1, section 8 already grants Congress the right to, among other things, "define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations; To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water; To raise and support armies" and the right to "[call] forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions."
Surely nobody thinks Congress intended to wage war, repel invasions or defeat pirates without the use of weapons; any constitutional need for National Guardsmen to bear arms is included in Article 1, section 8. So, then, what is the purpose of the second amendment? To remind us that, since the government already has the right to bear arms -- indeed, the need to bear arms, the need to have a military and a national guard -- well, since the State must maintain a well-regulated Militia to ensure its own security, it's vitally important that the right of the people to keep and bear arms not be infringed, lest the State be the only ones allowed to bear arms at all. The writers of the constitution had recently finished fighting a war to preserve the rights of individuals (well, some individuals) against an obtrusive government, and added the Bill of Rights to preserve the rights of individuals against the government, not to grant the government additional power to wield over individuals.